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Janka Hardness Scale

The Janka Hardness Scale is used to rate the hardness of wood. The higher the number the harder the wood. This test measures the ability of a wood species to withstand denting and wear. It’s also an indicator of how easy the species is when working with carpenter’s tools such as sawing, drilling and nailing.

Listed below are some of the more popular wood flooring species. These quantitative measurements should be used as a general guide. As with any scientific measurement there will be variations (+ or – 20%). Depending on where the wood was grown, plank constrtuction, and finish are additional factors when determining the durability and ease of maintenance of a wood floor.

These ratings were determined using the Janka Hardness Test which measures the side hardness of the force required to embed a .444 inch steel ball to half its diameter into the wood.

Janka Hardness Table

NOTE: Bold indicates species grown in the USA

Janka Test
@ 12% moisture content
Common Name Scientific Name
4500 lignumvitae Guaiacum spp.
3680 ipe Tabebula spp., lapacho group
3570 marishballi Lincania spp.
3480 manbarklak Eschweilera spp.
3350 azobe Lophira aiata
3220 Ebony Diospyros ebenum
3190 bulletwood Manilkara bidentata
3170 rosewood, Indian Dalbergia latifolia
3040 Angelim Pedra Hymenolobium petraeum
2900 kaneelhart Licaria spp.
2720 rosewood, Brazilian Dalbergia nigra
2690 bubinga Guibourtia spp.
2350 Brazilian Cherry /Jatoba Hymenaea courbaril
2350 courbaril Hymenaea courbaril
2350 greenheart Chlorocardium rodiei
2345 Mesquite Prosopis glandulosa v. Torr.
2300 mora Mora spp.
2300 persimmon, common Diospyros virginiana
2200 Santos Mahogany Myrocarpus Frondosus
2160 goncalo alves Astronium graveolens
2150 dogwood, flowering Cornus florida
2140 sucupira Diplotropis purpurea
2040 karri Eucalyptus diversicolor
2040 Osage Orange Maclura pornifer
2040 wallaba Eperua spp.
2030 ash, blue Fraxinus quadrangulata
1940 Cameron Samanea pedicellaris
1940 degame Calycophyllum candidissimum
1925 Merbau Myroxylon peruiferum
1912 Amendoim Pterogyne nitens
1910 jarrah Eucalyptus marginata
1860 hophornbeam, eastern Ostrya virginiana
1860 purpleheart Peltogyne spp.
1850 Tigerwood Astronium fraxinifolium
1820 hickory, pecan Carya illinoensis
1810 Afzelia Afzelia africana
1800 serviceberry Amelanchier spp.
1790 laurel, mountain Kalmia latifolia
1780 hornbeam, American Carpinus caroliniana
1780 Rosewood Dalbergia sissoo
1780 shorea Shorea spp., baulau group
1750 angelin Andira inermis
1750 benge Guibourtia amoldiana
1731 tree-of-heaven Ailanthus altissima
1730 apple Malus sylvestris
1730 peroba rosa Aspidosperma spp., peroba group
1725 African Padauk Pterocarpus Soyauxii
1720 para-angelim Hymenolobium excelsum
1720 piquia Caryocar spp.
1710 kempas Koompassia malaccensis
1700 locust, black Robinia pseudoacacia
1700 pilon Hyeronima spp.
1630 opepe Nauclea diderrichii
1630 Red Pine Pinus resinosa
1630 Wenge Millettia laurentii
1620 oak, swamp white Quercus bicolor
1600 peroba de campos Paratecoma peroba
1600 yew. Pacific Taxus brevifolia
1580 honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos
1575 Zebrawood Microberlinia brazzavillensis
1570 True Pine genus Pinus
1560 afromosia Pericopsis elata
1540 elm, winged Ulmus alata
1530 witch hazel Hamamelis virginica
1510 oak, pin Quercus palustris
1510 sapele Entandrophragma cylindricum
1500 merbau Intsia spp.
1480 oak, cherrybark Quercus falcata var pagodifolia
1470 birch, sweet Betula lenta
1460 madrone, Pacific Arbutus menziesii
1460 oak, willow Quercus phellos
1450 maple, sugar Acer saccharum
1410 sepetir Pseudosindora palustris
1400 oak, scarlet Quercus coccinea
1390 coffeetree, Kentucky Gymnocladus dioicus
1380 Bamboo Phyllostachys
1380 Natural Bamboo Bambuseae
1375 Australian Cypress Callitrus, glauca
1370 oak, bur Quercus macrocarpa
1360 oak, post Quercus stellata
1360 oak, white Quercus alba
1320 ash, white Fraxinus americana
1320 elm, cedar Ulmus crassifolia
1320 elm, rock Ulmus thomasii
1300 beech, American Fagus grandifolia
1300 ramin Gonystylus bancanus
1290 angelique Dicorynia guianensis
1290 mersawa Anisoptera spp.
1290 oak, northern red Quercus rubra
1280 Caribbean Heart Pine Pinus caribaea
1270 keruing Dipterocarpus spp.
1270 laurel, California Umbellularia californica
1260 birch, yellow Betula alleghaniensis
1260 iroko Chlorophora spp.
1240 oak, swamp chestnut Quercus michauxii
1230 kapur Dryobalanops spp.
1225 Yellow Heart Pine Pinus palustris
1210 oak, black Quercus velutina
1210 oak, laurel Quercus laurifolia
1200 ash, green Fraxinus pennsylvanica
1190 oak, overcup Quercus lyrata
1190 oak, water Quercus nigra
1180 Carbonized Bamboo Phyllostachys
1180 maple, black Acer nigrum
1160 ash, oregon Fraxinus latifolia
1160 juniper, alligator Juniperus deppeana
1150 santa maria Calophyllum brasiliense
1136 Cocobolo Dalbergia retusa
1130 andiroba Carapa guianensis
1130 oak, chestnut Quercus prinus
1120 manni Symphonia globulifera
1080 avodire Turraeanthus africanus
1060 oak, southern red Quercus falcata
1040 buckthorn, cascara Rhamnus purshiana
1020 albarco Cariniana spp.
1020 holly, American Ilex opaca
1020 magnolia, southern Magnolia grandiflora
1010 American walnut, black Juglans nigra
1000 teak Tectona grandis
990 ash, pumpkin Fraxinus profunda
960 robe Tabebul spp., roble group
950 American cherry, black Prunus serotina
950 cherry, black Prunus serotina
950 maple, red Acer rubrum
940 sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum
910 birch, paper Betula papyrifera
910 pine, ocote Pinus oocarpa
900 red cedar, eastern Juniperus virginiana
900 sande Brosimum spp., utile group
880 hackberry Celtis occidentalis
880 tupelo. water Nyssa aquatica
870 Southern yellow pine Pinus palustris
860 elm, slippery Ulmus rubra
860 pine, pinyon Pinus edulis
850 ash, black Fraxinus nigra
850 maple, bigleaf Acer macrophyllum
850 sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua
840 elder, blue Sambucus cerulea
830 elm, american Ulmus americana
830 larch, western Larix occidentalis
830 mahogany, African Khaya spp.
810 tupelo, black Nyssa sylvatica
800 mahogany, true Swietenia macrophylla
790 Cumaru Dipteryx odorata
780 (shorea) dark red meranti Shorea spp., lauan-meranti group
780 parana-pine Araucaria augustifolia
770 (shorea) yellow meranti Shorea spp., lauan-meranti group
770 sycamore, american Platanus occidentalis
760 birch, gray Betula populifolia
750 pine, Monterey Pinus radiata
740 pine, pond Pinus serotina
740 pine, virginia Pinus virginiana
730 chinkapin, giant Castanopsis chrysophylla
730 pine, sand Pinus clausa
720 boxelder Acer negundo
720 cedar, Port Orford Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
710 Douglas-fir, coast Pseudotsuga menziesii
700 (magnolia) cucumber tree Magnolia acuminata
700 maple, silver Acer saccharimum
690 pine, loblolly Pinus taeda
690 pine, shortleaf Pinus echinata
680 hemlock, mountain Tsuga mertensiana
680 sumac, staghorn Rhus typhina
660 determa Ocotea rubra
660 Douglas-fir. interior west Pseudotsuga menziesii
660 pine, spruce Pinus glabra
660 pine, Table Mountain Pinus pungens
660 primavera Tabebula donnell-smithii
630 cativo Prioria copaifera
630 sassafras Sassafras albidum
620 pine, pitch Pinus rigida
610 ilomba Pycnanthus angolensis
610 redcedar, southern Juniperus silicicola
600 Douglas-fir, interior north Pseudotsuga menziesii
600 Spanish-cedar Cedrela spp.
590 alder, red Alnus rubra
590 Larch
590 silverbell, Carolina Halesia carolina
590 tamarack Larix laricina
580 cedar, Alaska Chamaecyparis nootkatensis
570 baldcypress Taxcodium distichum
570 pine, jack Pinus banksiana
560 pine. red Pinus resinosa
550 catalpa, northern Catalpa speciosa
550 catalpa, southern Catalpa bignonioides
550 hura Hura crepitans
540 chestnut, American Castenea dentata
540 hemlock, western Tsuga heterophylla
540 yellow poplar Liriodendron tulipifera
520 spruce, black Picea mariana
510 banak Virola spp.
510 Douglas-fir, interior south Pseudotsuga menziesii
510 spruce, Sitka Picea sitchensis
500 fir, California red Abies magnifica
500 hemlock, eastern Tsuga canadensis
500 pine, Jeffrey Pinus jeffreyi
490 butternut Juglans cinerea
490 fir, grand Abies grandis
490 limba Terminalia superba
490 spruce, red Picea rubra
480 fir, white Abies concolor
480 pine, lodgepole Pinus contorta
480 redwood, old growth Sequoia sempervirens
480 spruce, white Picea glauca
470 incense-cedar Libocedrus decurrens
460 (shorea) light red meranti Shorea spp., lauan-meranti group
460 cypress, Mexican Cupressus lustianica
460 pine, ponderosa Pinus ponderosa
430 cottonwood, eastern Populus deltoides
430 fir, pacific silver Abies amabilis
430 obeche Triplochiton scleroxylon
430 White pine, limber Pinus flexilis
420 aspen, bigtooth Populus grandidentata
420 pine, western white Pinus monticola
420 redwood, second growth Sequoia sempervirens
410 basswood, American Tilia americana
410 fir, noble Abies procera
400 fir, balsam Abies balsamea
390 spruce, Engelmann Picea engelmanni
380 cuangare Dialyanthera spp.
380 okoume Aucoumea klaineana
380 pine, eastern white Pinus strobus
380 pine, sugar Pinus lambertiana
350 aspen, quaking Populus tremuloides
350 buckeye, yellow Aesculus octandra
350 cedar, atlantic white Chamaecyparis thyoides
350 cottonwood, black Populus trichocarpa
350 fir, subalpine Abies lasiocarpa
350 redcedar, western Thuja plicata
320 white-cedar, northern Thuja occidentalis
300 cottonwood) balsam poplar Populus balsamifera
240 ceiba Ceiba pentandra

NOTE: Bold indicates species grown in the USA